Known in English as (Diamond), it is a type of precious stone, and its original name goes back to the word Adamas, which is a Greek word, meaning a hard and strong stone, and the diamond is spread in the form of crystalline, close to the design of the triangle, and it is composed of the carbon element, and usually it is Diamonds are transparent, and light passes through them, and there are many types of them, which are distinguished by their beautiful colors, such as: blue, green, and yellow, and are weighted depending on the karat scale, and are considered one of the minerals that are difficult to obtain easily, so it is considered a rare mineral, for this The reason is the price of one piece of diamond is very high, compared to other precious stones.
Among the characteristics of diamonds are:
Most diamonds are found deep in the earth.
It can be obtained from sediments accumulated in rivers.
It can be found with other minerals, such as: gold.
It is a strong stone that does not break.
It is classified as a non-conductive stone, but it produces an electric charge.
Types of diamonds
Diamonds have a range of types, including:
The Jubilee Diamond
This diamond was discovered in 1895 AD, and its weight after polishing reached 245 carats, and was used by Queen Victoria of England in 1897 AD, and in 1930 AD it was sold to a jewelry exhibition in London, and its color is classified under dark colors.
The South African diamond
It was discovered in South Africa, at the beginning of the diamond mining process, and an English merchant bought it and sold it to the jewelry fair in South Africa, and it weighed 47.75 carats, after being polished, and a wealthy woman bought it, for 125 thousand dollars.
It is also called the Austrian Yellow Diamond, and it is considered one of the most beautiful diamonds in the world. It was discovered in India, and its weight after polishing reached 137 carats. It is distinguished by its color that mixes yellow and green colors. It was bought by a rich family in Florence in Italy, and then obtained by the King of Austria And it is still in his palace.
The Shah’s diamond
Opinions suggest that this diamond was first discovered in India, in 1665 AD, and it contains archaeological writings, especially for two rulers from India, and the kings of Persia, namely: Burhan Shah, Shah Jahan, and Fateh Ali Shah, and its weight after polishing reaches 88 carats, and this diamond is found Today in the Kremlin Palace in Russia.
The Kleinan diamond
It is also called the Star of Africa, and it is the largest type of diamond discovered in the world, and it was discovered in South Africa in 1905 AD, and its weight was very large compared to other types of diamonds, and it was presented as a gift to the King of England, Edward VII, and this diamond was divided into several pieces After polishing, it weighs 2,530 carats.
The Regent’s Diamond
It was discovered in India in the year 1701 AD, and it was the property of the ruler of Madras, William Pitt, and its weight after refinement reached 140 carats, and then William sold it in 1717 AD to France, but it was stolen, and France was able to retrieve it again.
Diamonds are classified into groups of tones, and the degree of diamonds, the extent of clarity in them, and the appropriate method of polishing them are determined in order to preserve their quality, and among these grades:
Shades (N – Z / K – M): It is the diamond with a noticeable color.
Shades (J – I): It is a semi-colorless diamond, meaning that its color is faint.
Shades (H-G): It is a semi-colorless diamond, meaning its color is difficult to detect.
Shades (E-F): It is a colorless diamond, but it is possible to reveal a very small part of its color.
Grade (D): it is a colorless diamond.